The Prophet Muhammad was a man from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religion under Islam. He is believed by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God. Muhammad was an adoptee and the father of an adopted son who believed that special attention should be paid to the care of children as prime recipients for charity—orphans should never be treated with harshness or driven away. A completely abandoned child is rare in the Arab world because Islamic law places a great deal of emphasis on family and the ties of kinship. If a child is orphaned, a thorough search to locate blood relatives to care for the child is an important step in the placement process. Contrary to adoption practices in the West, adoption by non-relatives seldom happens because removing a child from the local community, country, culture and Islamic religious roots is prohibited.
Sharia is the moral code and religious law of Islam that deals with secular law, personal matters, and everyday etiquette based on the infallible law of God, as opposed to human interpretation of the laws. Persons of the Islamic faith follow very specific rules laid down in the Qur’an that define the relationship between a child and their guardian parents, which is better described as a foster parent relationship. The role of the guardian foster parent is described as the individual responsible for feeding the child. The Qur’an reminds adoptive parents that they are not the child’s biological parents. Islamic rules specifically emphasizes to the adoptive foster family that they are not to take the place of the biological family. Their role is highly valued and important but they are merely viewed as trustees and caretakers of someone else’s child. Open adoption is required. The adoptive guardian foster parents are instructed to never hide the child’s biological family from the child and never allow ties with his or her biological family to be severed. Guardian parents are instructed to call their adopted children by the name of their biological father. The adopted child always retains their own biological family surname and does not change their name to match the identity of the adoptive parents. Changing the name of the child is not allowed because it is contrary to the truth.
According to the Qur’an inheritance follows biological lines and does not automatically descend from the adoptive parents to the adopted child. If the adopted child is provided with property and wealth from the biological family, the adoptive foster parents merely serve as trustees. Islamic law commands them to avoid intermingling their adopted child’s property and wealth with their own and by law can never give more than one third of their inheritance to an adopted child.
Rules of modesty exist between the adopted child and adoptive guardian family members of the opposite sex, but when the adopted child is grown, members of the adoptive family are allowed to marry adopted children because they are not a blood relative.
اعتماد | الأطفال الأيتام | المتبنى | אימוץ | ילדים יתום | מאומץ | Adopsi | Anak yatim-piatu | pungut